Known risk factors largely explain links between loneliness and first time heart disease/stroke

Conventional risk factors largely explain the links observed between loneliness/social isolation and first time heart disease/stroke, finds the largest study of its kind published online in the journal Heart.

But having few social contacts still remains an independent risk factor for death among those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, the findings show.

Recent research has increasingly highlighted links between loneliness and social isolation and cardiovascular disease and death. But most of these studies have not considered a wide range of other potentially influential factors, say the authors.

In a bid to clarify what role these other factors might have, they drew on data from nearly 480,000 people aged between 40 and 69, who were all part of the UK Biobank study between 2007 and 2010.

Full story at Science Daily

Discovery paves way for treatment to prevent blood vessel damage

The discovery of a previously unknown interaction between proteins could provide a breakthrough in the prevention of damage to healthy blood vessels. Led by the University of Bradford, the research shows how the two proteins combine to protect blood vessels from inflammation and damage and could pave the way for treatments to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.

The new study, published in Nature Communications, found that when a protein called SOCS3 binds directly with another protein called Cavin-1, small cell surface regions of blood vessels called caveolae are stabilised, preventing damage. This mechanism, previously unknown, is important for maintaining healthy vascular function. This process happens naturally in healthy cells but can be compromised when damage occurs, through natural processes such as ageing or as a result of lifestyle.

Full story at Science Daily

Starting periods before age of 12 linked to heightened risk of heart disease and stroke

Starting periods early — before the age of 12 — is linked to a heightened risk of heart disease and stroke in later life, suggests an analysis of data from the UK Biobank study, published online in the journal Heart.

It is one of several reproductive risk factors, including early menopause, complications of pregnancy, and hysterectomy, that seem to be associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease, the findings show.

Previous research has suggested that certain reproductive risk factors may be linked to an increased risk of heart disease or stroke, but the findings have been somewhat mixed.

Full story at Science Daily

Higher risk of dying due to heart cell damage without any symptoms occurs during or after non-heart surgery

Surgery that doesn’t involve the heart may cause damage to the heart in people with known or at high risk of developing heart disease and was associated with an increased risk of death, according to new research in the American Heart Association’s journal Circulation.

Heart cell damage during or after non-heart surgery, known as perioperative myocardial injury (PMI), is an important yet often undetected complication following non-heart surgery and is strongly associated with death within 30 days after surgery, according to research published in the American Heart Association’s journal Circulation. The causes of PMI are still under investigation.

“Patients with PMI are easily missed because they show no symptoms of heart disease in the majority of cases and only very rarely experience chest pain, which is the typical symptom of heart attack,” said Christian Puelacher, M.D., Ph.D., first author of the study and a clinical researcher at Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel, in Basel, Switzerland.

Full story at Science Daily

HIV patients at greater risk of both heart and kidney disease

HIV patients and their doctors are urged to be more aware of the additional health risks associated with treated HIV infection. This follows new research that shows HIV patients at high risk for a heart attack or stroke are also at substantially greater risk for chronic kidney disease and vice versa.

The research, led by the University of Adelaide’s Professor Mark Boyd, will be published today in a special issue of the journal PLOS Medicine, which focuses on worldwide advances in HIV prevention, treatment and cure in the lead up to World AIDS Day on 1 December.

Professor Boyd, an infectious diseases expert with the Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, led an international team to investigate additional diseases associated with HIV infection and its treatment.

Full story at Science Daily

Breathing dirty air may harm kidneys

Outdoor air pollution has long been linked to major health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A new study now adds kidney disease to the list, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the Veterans Affairs (VA) St. Louis Health Care System.

Pollution may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and, ultimately, contribute to kidney failure, according to the researchers.

The Washington University team, in collaboration with scientists at the Veterans Affairs’ Clinical Epidemiology Center, culled national VA databases to evaluate the effects of air pollution and kidney disease on nearly 2.5 million people over a period of 8.5 years, beginning in 2004. The scientists compared VA data on kidney function to air-quality levels collected by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Full story at Science Daily

Blood marker can predict heart disease risk in type-2 diabetes patients

Measuring a blood marker, copeptin, can successfully predict the risk of heart attacks in people with type-2 diabetes. This research presented at the European Congress of Endocrinology, suggests the copeptin molecule as a potential target to predict and prevent heart disease in diabetic patients.

Type-2 diabetes affects about 60 million people in Europe and is associated with a number of debilitating conditions, including blindness and kidney failure.Type-2 diabetes can also increase the risk of coronary artery disease and stroke, which can lead to premature death.

Copeptin is a fragment of the hormone vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone, which is involved in many physiological processes related to heart disease including water retention in the kidneys, blood vessel contraction, sugar metabolism in the liver and hormone secretion from the pancreas.

Full story of copeptin predicting heart disease risk in type-2 diabetes patients at Science Daily

Fish oil supplements may help prevent death after MI but lack evidence of CV benefit for general population

Omega-3 fish oil supplements prescribed by a healthcare provider may help prevent death from heart disease in patients who recently had a heart attack and may prevent death and hospitalizations in patients with heart failure, but there is a lack of scientific research to support clinical use of these supplements to prevent heart disease in the general population, according to a new science advisory from the American Heart Association.

“We cannot make a recommendation to use omega-3 fish oil supplements for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease at this time,” said David Siscovick, M.D., M.P.H., chair of the writing committee of the new science advisory published in the American Heart Association journal Circulation.

“People in the general population who are taking omega-3 fish oil supplements are taking them in the absence of scientific data that shows any benefit of the supplements in preventing heart attacks, stroke, heart failure or death for people who do not have a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease,” Siscovick said. Approximately 18.8 million U.S. adults reported taking omega-3 fish oil supplements in 2012.

Full story of fish oil may help prevent death after MI at Science Daily

Disadvantaged women at greater risk of heart disease than men

Women from low socioeconomic backgrounds are 25 per cent more likely to suffer a heart attack than disadvantaged men, a major new study has found.

Researchers from The George Institute for Global Health examined data from 22 million people from North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia.

In a review of 116 studies they demonstrated a lower socioeconomic status, compared to a higher, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease for both sexes, but women from more disadvantaged backgrounds were relatively more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease than similarly affected men. There was no difference found for stroke however.

Full story women’s risk of heart disease vs men at Science Daily

Eat hot peppers for a longer life?

Like spicy food? If so, you might live longer, say researchers at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, who found that consumption of hot red chili peppers is associated with a 13 percent reduction in total mortality — primarily in deaths due to heart disease or stroke — in a large prospective study.

The study was published recently in PLoS ONE.

Going back for centuries, peppers and spices have been thought to be beneficial in the treatment of diseases, but only one other study — conducted in China and published in 2015 — has previously examined chili pepper consumption and its association with mortality. This new study corroborates the earlier study’s findings.

Full story of hot peppers related to mortality at Science Daily